Blood Cancer is one of the type of cancer that attacks the lymphatic system, blood or bone marrow. Due to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal blood cells in the body i.e. cancerous cells, both the productivity and function of normal blood cells are affected. Blood cancer originates from the bone marrow, where the blood is produced. Cancerous cells prevents the body from performing functions or fight against infections.
The blood cancer is categorised into three types -
These cancers are often found in Bone marrow and in the blood and they occur due to the speedier production of abnormal white blood cells. These abnormal cells reduce the body’s ability to fight against the infection and also affects the bone marrow ability to produce platelets and red blood cells.
Myeloma cancers affect the Plasma cells which is basically a part of the white blood cells use to produce the infection and disease fighting antibodies in the body. Myeloma cancer prevents the plasma from producing these antibodies that results into a weak immune system.
Lymphoma blood cancer targets the Lymphatic system that produce the immune cells and also removes the excess fluids from the body. Lymphocytes is referred as one of the type of white blood cell which helps the body in fighting against infection. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which multiply and collect in your lymph nodes. After a particular time, immune system starts getting weak due to such cancerous cells.
Some Causes of Blood Cancer
There are various causes which are associated for the development of blood cancer which mainly includes -
- Blood Disorders
- Advanced Age
- Exposure to some specific chemicals
- History to some genetic disorders
- Family History of Blood Cancer
- Exposure to some types of Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy
- Weak immune system due to AIDS/HIV conditions, by organ transplant or by taking corticosteroids.
Symptoms of Blood Cancer
There are plenty of symptoms which indicate the Blood Cancer which are as follows -
- Bleeding and Easy Bruising
- Frequent infections
- Mouth Ulcer
- Red Spots on Skin
- Shortness of breath
- Swollen Lymph nodes
- Unintentional Weight Loss
- Night Sweats
- Nausea can result in the feeling of queasiness, upset stomach, retching, Wooziness, car-sickness, or sea-sickness.
There are some serious symptoms beside these symptoms which include -
- Bluish color of the Fingernails or lips.
- Heavy and Uncontrolled bleeding.
- Severe Abdominal Pain.
- Rapid Heart Rate
- Changes in the level of alertness or consciousness that include unresponsiveness or passing out.
- High Fever
- Unexplained Mental condition or behaviour changes like confusion, delusions, hallucinations, lethargy, and delirium.
- Palpitations, Chest Tightness, Chest pain and Chest pressure.
Treatment of Blood Cancer
Although Blood cancer is a life threatening disease but it can be successfully cure if treatment is taken timely and properly. The treatment of blood cancer is quite complex and does not depends on its types only but depends on other factors also such as whether any Leukemia treatment has been done before, leukemia cells and the extent of the disease. As well as, its treatment depends on some other factors which include general health, symptoms and age of a patient.
Blood Cancer treatment mainly comprises of three types of treatment which includes -
- Biological Therapy - Biological Therapy is also known as immunotherapy which works on the ability of immune system to fight against the cancer cells. Two of its types are Monoclonal antibodies and Interferon.
- The Monoclonal antibodies is aim to stick over cancer cells to draw the attention of immune system on these cancer cells
- While the Interferon works to kill the cancer cells by stimulating the Immune System.
- Both the above options are used for Chronic Leukemia rather than acute leukemia.
- Radiotherapy - Also known as radiation therapy making the use of energy rays like X-rays for preventing the growth and dividing of cancer cells.
- Bone - Marrow Transplantation - In this process, abnormal cells or cancer cells are destroyed with the use of very high doses of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Bone Marrow transplant is performed to replace a damaged bone marrow with a healthy bone marrow stem cells also known as stem cells.
In Bone marrow transplantation, healthy stem cells are taken from the bone marrow of one person and transfer them into the bone marrow of another person.
These are the treatments of Blood Cancer in India.